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COOKING OF GRAINS.
All grains, except for rice, and the varied grain meals, require extended cooking with mild and steady warmth, with a purpose to so disintegrate their tissues and alter their starch into dextrine as to render them straightforward of digestion. Even the so-called “steam-cooked” grains, marketed to be prepared to be used in 5 or ten minutes, require a for much longer cooking to correctly match them for digestion. These so-called shortly ready grains are merely steamed earlier than grinding, which has the impact to destroy any low organisms contained within the grain. They’re then crushed and shredded. Bicarbonate of soda and lime is added to assist dissolve the albuminoids, and typically diastase to assist the conversion of the starch into sugar; however there may be nothing on this preparatory course of that so alters the chemical nature of the grain as to make it attainable to cook dinner it prepared for simple digestion in 5 or ten minutes. An insufficiently cooked grain, though it could be palatable, just isn’t in a situation to be readily acted upon by the digestive fluids, and is in consequence left undigested to behave as a mechanical irritant.
Water is the liquid often employed for cooking grains, however a lot of them are richer and finer flavored when milk is combined with the water, one half to 2 of water. Particularly is that this true of rice, hominy, and farina. When water is used, smooth water is preferable to exhausting. No salt is critical, but when used in any respect, it’s usually added to the water earlier than stirring within the grain or meal.
The amount of liquid required varies with the completely different grains, the style wherein they’re milled, the tactic by which they’re cooked, and the consistency desired for the cooked grain, extra liquid being required for a porridge than for a mush.
All grains must be rigorously seemed over earlier than being put to cook dinner.
Within the cooking of grains, the next factors must be noticed:
1. Measure each liquid and grain precisely with the identical utensil, or with two of equal dimension.
2. Have the water boiling when the grain is launched, however don’t permit it to boil for a very long time earlier, till it’s significantly evaporated, as that can change the proportion of water and grain sufficiently to change the consistency of the mush when cooked. Introduce the grain slowly, in order to not cease the sinking to the underside, and the entire turns into thickened.
3. Stir the grain repeatedly till it has set, however in no way afterward. Grains are far more appetizing if, whereas correctly softened, they’ll nonetheless be made to retain their unique type. Stirring renders the preparation pasty, and destroys its look.
Within the preparation of all mushes with meal or flour, it’s a good plan to make the fabric right into a batter with a portion of the liquid retained from the amount given, earlier than introducing it into the boiling water. This prevents the tendency to cook dinner in lumps, so frequent when dry meal is scattered into boiling liquid. Care have to be taken, nevertheless, so as to add the moistened portion very slowly, stirring vigorously meantime, in order that the boiling won’t be checked. Use heat water for moistening. The opposite instructions given for the entire or damaged grains are relevant to the bottom merchandise.
Place the grain, when sufficiently cooked, within the fridge or in some place the place it is going to cool shortly (as sluggish cooling may trigger fermentation), to stay in a single day.